Category Archives: Exoplanet pioneers

Interview to Didier Queloz — ‘From 51 Pegasi to the search for life around small stars’

Interview to Prof. Didier Queloz at University of Cambridge/UK, by Guillem Anglada-Escude

In the early 90’s the search for extra-solar planets was not even a research topic. What can you tell us about those first days?

At the end of the 80’s and early 90’s, exoplanets were not fashionable at all. I was involved in the design and building of a new type of instrument specifically designed to find planets around other stars. Our team were very successful in making key design decisions, so as soon we had the instrument on the telescope, we quickly identified one with quite a different variability from the others. It was 51 Peg.

The spectrograph concept was developed by a team under the direction of Prof. Michel Mayor. Who created the optical design? I heard that a French professor called Andre Baranne was a key person at that stage…

Yes, in any instrument, there is always an expert in precision optics. The person for that project was Prof. Andre Baranne. He was the creator of the so-called ‘white-pupil’ design, which is now adopted by most high resolution spectrometers. Before Andre’s work, spectrometers were huge, photon-eating devices. Thanks to that improvement, instruments became compact and efficient. He was close to retirement but he became very active in the project. The spectrometer was build at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP). In those days they had very sensitive cameras for faint objects, but a lot of telescope time could not be used because of background contamination by the moon. This is when Michel Mayor came forward offering a high resolution spectrometer for stellar astrophysics that, at the same time, would be able to detect radial velocities with unprecedented precision. Because it was a joint effort of Micheal’s team and the observatory, quite a lot of people were behind the design of the numerous subsystems.

The ELODIE spectrograph ready for operation at the 193 cm Telescoep of l'Observatoire de Haute Provence. Image credit : CNRS / OHP
The ELODIE spectrograph ready for operation at the 193 cm Telescoep of l’Observatoire de Haute Provence. Image credit : CNRS / OHP

You and Micheal Mayor were at the Geneva Observatory at the time but the spectrograph was made by OHP?

Yes, OHP built it but most participating astronomers were from Geneva. Michel already had a working instrument at OHP called CORAVEL, so it was a natural choice for him to to build the new one with them. The deal was the following; OHP would build two spectrometers, and the second one would be installed at the Swiss telescope at la Silla in Chile (CORALIE). For a number of reasons, the OHP one -ELODIE- was at the telescope first, which is where I spent most of my PhD time testing the new hardware, detectors, optical fibres, wavelength calibration using Thorium-Argon lamps and simultaneous tracking. These are obvious things to do today, but they were completely new concepts at the time. ELODIE was the first of a series of instruments that led to HARPS.

World-renowned Swiss astronomers Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor of the Geneva Observatory are seen here in front of ESO’s 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile. The telescope hosts HARPS, the world’s leading exoplanet hunter. Image credits : L. Weinstein/Ciel et Espace Photos/ESO
World-renowned Swiss astronomers Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor of the Geneva Observatory are seen here in front of ESO’s 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile. The telescope hosts HARPS, the world’s leading exoplanet hunter. Image credits : L. Weinstein/Ciel et Espace Photos/ESO

So what was the key element that made possible the breakthrough of finding the first planet in 1995?

Two really important things. We had enough telescope time to look at a meaningful sample of stars. And second, of course, we also had the machine to do it. We could regularly obtain data with a precision better than 10 m/s, which had not been possible before… and the signals were just there. Once you have done the really hard work of getting that kind of precision, the planets come for free (‘almost’). The previous precision was 50–100 m/s with instruments similar to CORAVEL, and even some first results reported by G. Marcy’s team , were in the 20–30 m/s level. When Marcy & Butler managed to get down to 5–10 m/s level, the planets started to show-up in their data too. The same for us. This new machine started delivering better than 10 m/s since the beginning, so with all this hard work done you can only start finding those planets.

How was finding 51 Peg, and more importantly, how sure were you that it was a planet? Lots of people were skeptical those days, arguing that it was an instrumental error?..an astrophysical artifact?..a binary?

In a sense, people were right to be skeptical. We were as well. You have to realize there were no known exoplanets in those days. It was a rather special situation. Today is very different. You can now publish, or claim detections of planets, even if you are not 100% sure because there are many of them so one more or less is not that transcendental. That was not the case back then. You REALLY needed to be sure. In our case, it was a new instrument and nobody was expecting to find a planet at such short period. I was the first not to expect it, and the same for Michel Mayor. Michel was on sabbatical, so I started the observation program more or less alone. Quite early on I picked up a strange object. It was weird, that star was clearly not stable above those 10 m/s, but it was known to be a very non-active sun-like star too. I kind of felt responsible for the operation of the spectrograph and all the software, so I became completely obsessed with it. I observed 51 Peg much more often than was planned. Consequently I found that there was a periodicity to the signal. Then I took quite some time to convince myself first that the signal was a planet without telling anybody. Convincing myself implied reviewing all the data-processing, the way the velocity was measured, that the period was not related to some instrumental issue and review the other stars in the sample. Once there was no more to check, I sent a fax to Michel who was in Hawaii. “Michel, I think I have found a planet with this period”. Michel responded “Yes, ok… maybe, I’ll see when I come back”. He was really puzzled. We then reviewed everything from the start again, thinking there might be a bug somewhere… even what we knew from the star itself; star-spots on it could create a signal.

Radial velocity curve of 51 Peg as measured by ELODIE. The radial velocity variations follow an amplitude of 59 m/s and have a period of 4.23 days. Source : OHP
Radial velocity curve of 51 Peg as measured by ELODIE. The radial velocity variations follow an amplitude of 59 m/s and have a period of 4.23 days. Source : OHP

It’s kind of funny for me, because most of what has been done later—looking at activity features and comparing it to the orbits of the possible planets—we did all these in that first paper too. I suspect nobody understood the reason for all those tests and complexity (read about the reasons in X. Dumusque’s article here). The detection of the signal was the easy part! The hard part was to be completely sure that it was a planet, and nothing else. When we had all this, we submitted the paper, and it barely got accepted. It felt a bit like magic because it was shaking the currently held theory. In a way, when we announced it at the Florence meeting, we were lucky that G.Marcy & P. Bulter were at the telescope at that very moment. G. Marcy later confessed that he thought the signal was a complete fraud, so they were also really surprised when they could confirm the signal after only a few days. This was kind of the key point of my PhD, and a big relief. That meant that the data was fine, the spectrograph was working and the period was also fine. Then we had to struggle a lot with the community. For example, many argued this could not be a planet but the atmosphere of a star changing over time. In science when you make a big claim you typically get heavily attacked, and if you survive you come back even stronger. So it took us a couple of years to convince everybody, but the final blow came in 2000 when the first of these planets was found to transit in front of the star.

51 Peg, and the planets we familiarly know as hot-Jupiters, are still a mystery and a challenge. We know a lot about these hot-Jupiters, we probe their atmospheres, we can see if their orbits are aligned with the star. But it is still a mystery how they fit in the big picture of how we think planets should form. We now know that those planets are relatively rare (about <2% of the stars have them). But with these odds, you pick up 50 stars at random and this is what you get. True enough, there was only one hot-Jupiter in our sample. In a sense, you need to be lucky to find a planet. You need the right instrument and the right strategy, and the planet needs to be there.

But one needs to push his luck…

Sure, what we were really ‘lucky’ about is that the other team didn’t get it first! Geoff Marcy started 2 years before so they could have found it two years earlier.

There were issues with resources if you ask Paul Butler (see story here!)… Are there other discoveries after 51 Peg that you feel proud of as well?

Well, I think the discovery of 51 Peg was the key to this threshold—it changed the whole game, it opened up the field of exoplanets. So I came out in this strange situation, my best ever result and highest impact paper is that first one. I mean, we created the field with 51 Peg in 1995. Before it was a weird topic, after ’95 it was a scientific topic, and the theme has been made broader because it is related to the search for life in the universe. 51 Peg was key. Of course, I have been doing lots and lots of other things, and working on other techniques like transit searches and astrometry.

What is driving your research these days?

Oh, this is simple. We have a long list of questions now. 51 Peg was the entry point. There are numerous scientific questions to answer, and a handful that are really important and deep ones. For example, the formation of our Solar System in the context of other planetary systems. We need to detect lots of planets and characterize their atmospheres to understand how planetary systems form and evolve…

…but the real question that is driving my efforts is looking for life in the universe. After finding the first planet, this is the next big thing. From a practical point of view; can we define a robust and affordable strategy to do this? I am getting more and more convinced that a step-by-step process is realistic, but it will require out-of-the-box thinking in terms of support of the science. So now I invest a lot of time to try to explain to people that the Victorian division of the sciences like Chemistry, Physics, Astrophysics, Biology doesn’t make sense in this context anymore. The question of life in the universe is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be tackled in a different way. I try to convince agencies, and the universities, that all the work I have been doing is about promoting this new kind of work. I might not be doing it myself because I am getting too old, but I really think that the task of the next generation of scientists won’t be searching for the planets, it will be about figuring out whether there is life on these planets.

From all the proposals to search for evidence of life around exoplanets, do you have a favorite one?

There are plenty of ways to look for evidence of life on other planets. The difference is in the practicalities. It will be enormously difficult to detect and characterize an Earth-analog around a star like the Sun. It will be done, I am pretty sure, we will eventually have pictures of such a world, we will see continents, rotation… that will happen, I am confident, nothing will stop. It is just that, being realistic, the technology we need is not there. As scientists we want to think big and far, but we also need to look at what the technology of today can achieve. Along these lines, there are a number of experiments that allow us to push pretty far in the understanding of exoplanets (post by Don Polacco). The transit technique gives potential access to the atmospheres, so we need to work on that. And the direct imaging method has finally made great progress and soon will be providing abundant information about the atmosphere of planets (gas giants first).

Can we do well enough to be able to find life? This is where we need to go back to the books. People have been thinking about this for a long time. What would an Early-Earth atmosphere look like. What about the early UV and X-ray fluxes? All the assumptions made so far were very simplistic and the habitable zone concept much tied to the Earth’s… you add some hydrogen into the atmosphere and the possible climates change completely. We need studies at telescopes, but also in the lab. My idea is being as open-minded as I can. The real drive of the field has been finding and reporting the unexpected. We really need to get away from being over-simplistic.

Today, there are kinds of stars where we might be able to do it, because it is easier. These are very very small stars (like Proxima). With the available technology of today, there are realistic chances of finding the first hints of life in planets around them. This is an amazing field of research. It is extremely exciting to begin the transition from exoplanet detection towards the search for life. These planets must be very different than Earth. Nobody has thought much about taking an Earth and putting it so close to the star. The amount of UV fluxes, tidal interactions, the nature of the atmosphere and climates… all can be so different! We have to go to the drawing board and broaden our expectations. In this sense, I think Pale Red Dot is the kind of project that is opening up where these planets are, it can lead to the new science that will explode soon. There will be some chance of seeing hints of organic activity, but let’s make it more simple… let’s look for something that tells us that an atmosphere is out-of-balance. Life takes the Earth atmosphere out of balance. This is something that cannot happen without an active agent on the planet surface. So, let’s search for signs of these atmospheres being out of balance. This will be a new big window that can potentially open the field as the first planet did. I’m willing to invest time enabling this new era.

We all have high hopes of that… so how do you see the mid-term future? Do you see a large class mission in space anytime soon?

I have experience with space missions. Careful! Space business is about minimizing risk. Space missions and agencies run away from doing new technology. On the other hand, you can do many more technological cycles from the ground. The low-mass stars can be done from the ground. And this is the problem. There is no big experiment systematically preparing to investigate planets around these very low-mass stars. There are small attempts but we really need more. The one program I am aware of is SPECULOOS, and there can be many more of these programs. But these are on small class telescopes and the goal is finding them, not characterizing them… Is there a plan for the big telescopes? No, there isn’t! We can do it and we should do it. Infrared, stabilized spectrographs on the VLT do not need a 100M investment. So a lot can be done from the ground.

Technical sketch of the SPECULOOS bservatory. Source : www.orca.ulg.ac.be/SPECULOOS/
Technical sketch of the SPECULOOS bservatory. Source : www.orca.ulg.ac.be/SPECULOOS/

Space is great, but space is not the place for innovation and development. You need to first to have the technology, show that it will definitely work, and setup long and expensive technology development programs. The European Space Agency (ESA) is not good at that. The budget is really limited compared to larger agencies like NASA. For example, ESA could not launch something like JWST. Given that this is our working framework, we should be promoting and strongly developing our ground based facilities. We could be world-leading, and we are not doing that. There are exoplanet detection programs attached to some instrument developments but, given the weight and influence of the field, we don’t have enough. We are not investing enough to go for the big challenge that is the search for life. I will be happy to change my mind if a revolutionary idea (and resources) show up. But we need to be very careful in thinking that space is the solution to all our needs.

For example, look at the gravitational wave experiments. It took 30 years to build up and refine the experiments needed to finally be successful, and they might also get a space mission. We are now in a similar situation. I think we need a bit more progress. We should be looking for life around these low-mass stars. Once we find it (or evidence for it), that will completely change the field (as 51 Peg did) . The current designs of big missions are not appropriate to search for evidence of life. People designed the missions to detect planets orbiting G,K and early M-stars. That is not what is needed in the most immediate time-frame to move forward in the search for life. My hope? When we start detecting and investigating these planets around low-mass stars, we will realize we haven’t built the right instrument and we will react to it.

A paradigm change then…

Yes, I think with experiments like Pale Red Dot and SPECULOOS it will become obvious these planets are probably there in large numbers; and then we won’t be looking for the planets themselves, we will start looking for life. The experiments and the field become different. I don’t want to minimize the importance of other questions like origins and formation of planetary systems. It is crucial to understand how the solar system started and put it in context. But if you really want to look ahead, the goal is to search for life, nothing else. By finding hints of life around these small stars, the argument will become strong and solid enough to promote and narrow-down the design of THE space mission that will address the question of life in the universe in a broader context.

Taken during the European Southern Observatory 50th anniversary gala, held in the Residenz, Munich, on October 11, 2012. Image credits : M.McCaughrean (ESA)/ESO
Taken during the European Southern Observatory 50th anniversary gala, held in the Residenz, Munich, on October 11, 2012. Image credits : M.McCaughrean (ESA)/ESO

About the author. Didier Queloz was a Ph.D. student at the University of Geneva when he and Michel Mayor discovered the first exoplanet around a main sequence star. Queloz performed an analysis on 51 Pegasi using radial velocity measurements (Doppler spectroscopy). He worked on and lead several large instrumentation projects including ground based interferometers and space-missions. He was appointed as faculty member at Geneva University in 2003, and in 2008 he became full professor. During his career he has received numerous awards and recognition and he has recently taken a Professor position at the Cavendish Laboratory at University of Cambridge (UK), where he is also a fellow member of the prestigious Trinity College.

‘A brief personal History of Exoplanets’, by Paul Butler

by R. Paul Butler, Staff Scientist at the Carnegie Institution for Science

Prologue

I began working on exoplanets in 1986.  At the time there were no known planets beyond the solar system.  An exoplanet meeting could have been held in a phone booth, of which there were still
many. When asked by other astronomers, “What are you working on?”, one could not respond, “I am searching for extrasolar planets.”
Depending on the person, they might laugh in your face, or
slowly move away from you like you were pitching a new age
religion or alien conspiracy theories.  For most of the previous hundred years sensible planet search programs had relied on the astrometric technique, looking for a nearby star to wobble relative  to background stars. Astronomers were aware of the possibility of  detecting planets by the Doppler velocity method; they knew that Jupiter caused the Sun to wobble by a velocity of ~10 m/s.  They  were also aware that achieving Doppler velocity measurement precision better than 1,000 m/s was difficult, and achieving precision better than 300 m/s was impossible. In 1973 Griffin & Griffin wrote a seminal paper in which they identified several of the most important sources of measurement uncertainty, and  challenged the community to improve velocity precision down to the undreamed of level of 10 m/s.

In the late 1970s Bruce Campbell and Gordon Walker conceived the idea of using a gas absorption cell inserted in the beam of the telescope.  The starlight is collected by the primary mirror, and passes through the gas absorption cell just prior to entering the spectrometer. The spectrum of the gas vapor in the absorption cell is imprinted on the starlight, and provides a reference spectrum against which to measure the Doppler shift of the star.  The reference spectrum is essentially a measuring stick.  Campbell and Walker spent 8 years solving a myriad of problems. Along with their small team, they achieved the critical breakthrough of improving Doppler velocity measurement precision from 300 m/s to 13 m/s.

bruce_gordon
Bruce Campbell and Gordon Walker, pioneers in precision Doppler spectroscopy via use of a Hydrogen-Fluoride absorption cell, which is both a corrosive and a highly poisonous gas.

The Campbell and Walker gas absorption cell was filled with hydrogen-fluoride (HF) vapor, an extremely dangerous gas that slowly eats glass.  Another disadvantage of HF is that it only provides a few reference lines over a limited wavelength range. With so few stellar and reference lines, they were forced to take hour-long exposures at the telescope, which limited their survey to about 20 stars.

Pre-history
The advent of CCD detectors, and improving computer speed and storage, led to the development of modern echelle spectrometers in the early 1980s.  Arguably the first modern echelle spectrometer, the Hamilton, was designed by Steve Vogt and built in the Lick Observatory optical shop in the early 1980s. This spectrometer remains in use on the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick, and can also be fed by the 24-inch CAT (coude-auxillary-telescope).

Geoff Marcy was Steve Vogt‘s graduate student during much of the time that Vogt was designing and building the Hamilton spectrometer.  In 1986 Geoff Marcy was an assistant professor at  San Francisco State University.  I was a Master’s physics student, with an undergraduate degree in chemistry.  For my Master’s thesis we agreed to work on improving Doppler velocity precision—with the goal of detecting extrasolar planets.

Marcy was aware of the great strides in measurement precision made by Bruce Campbell and Gordon Walker.  I followed Campbell and Walker’s idea of observing stars through an absorption cell. For sun-like stars, most of the velocity information is in the visible portion of the EM spectrum, so I began looking for gases that absorb light in the visible.  In essence I was looking for a colored gas. A major problem that emerged was that most colored gases are either explosive, deadly poisonous, or both. After 6 months in chemistry libraries, chemistry laboratories, and day-time tests at the Hamilton spectrometer, we settled on using molecular iodine (I2).  Iodine vapor is a shade of violet, and produces thousands of absorption lines from 5,000 Angstroms (green) to 6,200 Angstroms (red).  Along with Mylan Healy, the SFSU chemistry glass blower, I constructed the first precision velocity Iodine cell in May 1987.

The iodine cell was first used to take stellar data with the Hamilton spectrometer on the evening of June 10 1987.  I completed my physics Masters thesis at SFSU in August 1987. I then moved to the University of Maryland to pursue my PhD.

Original Iodine cell for Lick Observatory
Original Iodine cell for Lick Observatory.

We ran into a host of problems along the path to obtaining precision velocities, many of them the same problems that Campbell and Walker had faced.  Spectrometers are composed of real stuff; lenses, mirrors, gratings made of different types of glass, separated and held in place with components made of different metals and other materials.  Each of these materials expands and contracts at different rates with changes in temperature.  Imperfections and jitter of the telescope drive cause the starlight to wander on the entrance slit to the spectrometer.  The smearing function of the spectrometer varies with changes in temperature, air pressure, and telescope guiding. This is why prior to Campbell and Walker, Doppler measurement precision had been stalled at 300 m/s for decades.

On short timescales—less than an hour—we were quickly able to  achieve a precision of 5 m/s.  But night-to-night and month-to-month, the precision was 100 m/s or worse.  It took 5 years to achieve long term precision better than 20 m/s. The key breakthrough was suggested by Jeff Valenti, a PhD student at Berkeley at the time.  Valenti was also using the Hamilton spectrometer, with the goal of measuring magnetic signatures in the spectrum of stars, a subtle effect.  Valenti suffered from many of the same problems, in  particular the variable smearing function of the spectrometer. Valenti suggested that the spectrometer smearing function could be directly determined by observing a stable, known spectrum. He  suggested making observations of the Sun, either during the day, or by observing the moon or an asteroid, which reflect sunlight.

We realized that we had a known spectrum embedded in every observation we took, the molecular iodine from the iodine absorption cell.  In 1991 we took the Lick Observatory iodine cell to the McMath Solar telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. The McMath had a very special type of spectrometer, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS).   FTS spectrometers provide extraordinarily high resolution—a factor of twenty or better than high resolution astronomical echelle spectrometers.  Astronomers don’t use FTS spectrometers at the telescope because they require more light than telescopes can provide. FTS spectrometers are typically used by physicists in atomic spectroscopy labs, and at solar telescopes. A detailed comparison of the FTS spectrum of the iodine absorption cell with the iodine cell as observed with the Hamilton echelle spectrometer allows for the Hamilton smearing function to be modeled and accounted for.  I wrote the first software that could model and account for the spectrometer smearing function in early 1992.  A major problem was the speed of early 1990s computers. Observations that took 5 minutes at the telescope required more than 6 hours to analyze on the computer.

Though we could now achieve precision of 15 to 20 m/s, we  continued to use all of our limited computer power in an effort to improve their nascent Doppler velocity reduction software. This was motivated by the results of the Canadian program, which stopped taking data in 1992. With 12 years of data covering 21 stars at a precision of 13 m/s, they did not find any planets (Walker et al. 1995).  Based on this result we decided that precision of 5 m/s or better was needed to make progress. In January 1993 I completed my PhD at the University of Maryland, and moved back to California where I began a postdoctoral position at SFSU and UC Berkeley.  Over most of the next 3 years I worked on improving the velocity reduction software package.

hamspectrum
Echelle spectrum as it would have shown in the display of the Hamilton Spectrograph back in the 90’s.

The next big breakthrough in the project was led by Steve Vogt. Vogt had recently completed the design and construction of the HIRES  echelle spectrometer for the Keck 10-m telescope.  Based on a number of advances made over the previous decade, he went back to work on the Hamilton echelle.  In November 1994 he replaced the spectrometer camera with a new design that he and Harland Epps invented.  The new design dramatically improved the resolution of the Hamilton.  In addition he replaced the old CCD detector with a next generation detector that was 6 times larger, significantly increasing the amount of spectrum that could be analyzed.

Steve Vogt with the Hamilton Spectrograph inside the Shane 3-meter dome. Image credits : Laurie Hatch 2003 (c)
Steve Vogt with the Hamilton Spectrograph inside the Shane 3-meter dome. Image credits : Laurie Hatch 2003 (c), www.lauriehatch.com

After the Hamilton spectrometer upgrade, my effort was focused
on the newly emerging higher quality data.  By May 1995 the
upgraded hardware and software were producing 3 m/s precision.
Computer speed continued to be a problem.  We had two
computers between us. The 8 years of data we had collected
would require several years of computer time to analyze.

Breakthrough

At a meeting in Italy during the first week of October 1995 Michel  Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a very strange planet.  51 Peg b has a mass similar to Jupiter, but orbits its host star in 4 days.  While these “hot Jupiters” are now known to be common, at the time nobody had suggested that such planets could exist. Much of the astronomical community as well as the press were skeptical of the claim. We had already been assigned 4 nights of precious time on the Lick Observatory 3-m telescope beginning on the evening of October 11.  We observed 51 Peg multiple times each night. I reduced just the 51 Peg data each day, which was all our  computers were capable of handling.  The observing run concluded on the morning of Sunday October 15.  The first 3 nights of data were consistent with the discovery announcement from Mayor and Queloz, but we wanted to see the final night of data before going public. After 4 nights on the mountain, we drove back to Berkeley and crashed. It took our two computers all day to reduce the  51 Peg observations from the final night.  We met back at our Berkeley office at midnight.  Within a half hour we were able to confirm the discovery of the first extrasolar planet.  We put a plot of the 4 nights of data, along with the orbital fit, on the then brand new World Wide Web.

Doppler measurements of 51 Peg from observations were made at Lick Observatory between Oct.11, 1995 and Dec. 1996.
Doppler measurements of 51 Peg from observations were made at Lick Observatory between Oct.11, 1995 and Dec. 1996.

The discovery of 51 Peg b marked two major changes for the Lick
Planet Search Program.  No longer was the primary target
Jupiter-analogs with 12 year orbital periods.  Planets could
be found at any orbital period, and could already be embedded
in the raw data taken over the previous 8 years.  The second
change was that the field of extrasolar planets had suddenly
become very hot. In the wake of the newspaper and TV publicity
that followed the discovery of 51 Peg b, several research groups
at UC Berkeley offered the loan of research computers.
Shortly thereafter SUN Microsystems made a grant of additional
research computers to the Lick Planet Search Program.

sfsu_wall_test_velocities
Snapshot of hardworking scientists at San Francisco State University with up-to-date computing facilities of the early 90’s.

In late October 1995 I finalized the Doppler velocity reduction analysis, and began analyzing the 8 year backlog of  data on an armada of computers that finally topped out at more than 20 machines.  Clearing out the backlog of 8 years of data took until June 1996.  Analyzing all the observations of a single star could take from half a day to several weeks, depending on how many observations had been taken.  Observations taken after Steve Vogt’s upgrade in November 1994 are internally referred to as “post-fix”.  The data from the first 7  years is “pre-fix”.  These are two separate data sets.  Upgrading the camera and the CCD detector made the Hamilton a completely new spectrometer, requiring a completely new Doppler analysis  package.  Stitching together the “pre-fix” and “post-fix” data sets was a major problem.  This problem has re-emerged on most of my subsequent Doppler surveys. By mid-December 1995 hints of planet signals were emerging from the data.  At 8 a.m. on the morning of Sunday December 31, I walked into the deserted Berkeley astronomy department to check on the armada of computers.  A few jobs had finished, so I loaded the available computers with new stars and looked at the recently analyzed data.  The bright nearby star 70 Vir had a whopping signal, the star was being tugged back-and-forth by several hundred meters per second.  Within 5 minutes I had fit the data with a Keplerian planetary orbit indicating a 7 Jupiter-mass planet in an 116 day orbit.  The signal was so overwhelming that there could be no doubt.  This was the first definitive planet to be discovered by the Lick Planet Search Program. After 9 years of working toward this moment, I was stunned, silent. I closed my eyes for several minutes, then looked back at the  computer screen.  The signal was still there.  I did this several times to make sure that the signal did not vanish.  In the absolute quiet of a New Years eve Sunday morning I sat for the next hour looking at the signal.  For a long time I had the sense that Johannes Kepler was standing over my shoulder, looking at the same signal.

70vir
Doppler signal of 70 Vir b, the first planet detected by the Lick Planet Search Program with the Iodine cell technique.

Over the next two weeks the case for a planet around 47 UMa firmed up. I solved the problem for putting together the pre-fix and post-fix data.  The improved precision of the post-fix data sat on the pre-fix planet prediction like pearls on a string. We announced the planets around 70 Vir and 47 UMa at the the winter meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio Texas on January 17, 1996.  The story received significant press coverage, including the front page of the NY Times, Washington Post, and the cover of Time magazine.

Over the next 5 months the armada of computers ground through the 9 years of Lick observations.  The next 4 planets quickly emerged, including the planets around rho 1 Cnc, tau Boo, nu And, and 16 Cyg B. The Lick Planet Search Program continued to churn out planets over the next decade.  A few highlights include the discovery of the planet around an M (red) dwarf star (GL 876) in 1998, and first multiple planet system orbiting nu And in 1999. Our planet search programs at the Lick, Keck, Anglo-Australian and Magellan Observatories have subsequently found hundreds of planets, including the first transiting planet, the first Saturn-mass planet, the first Neptune-mass planet, and the first Super-earths.

The camera is positioned near the 2.4-meter primary mirror in the dome of the Automated Planet Finder Telescope at Lick Observatory. At upper right is the secondary mirror. APF is fully robotic, and equipped with a high-resolution spectrograph (designed by Steve Vogt) optimized for precision Doppler measurements. Laurie Hatch 2009 (c), www.lauriehatch.com
The camera is positioned near the 2.4-meter primary mirror in the dome of the Automated Planet Finder (APF) Telescope at Lick Observatory. At upper right is the secondary mirror. APF is fully robotic, and equipped with a high-resolution spectrograph (designed by Steve Vogt) optimized for precision Doppler measurements. Laurie Hatch 2009 (c), www.lauriehatch.com

After a decade of work, teams at the Carnegie Observatories (Stephen Shectman, Jeff Crane, Ian Thompson) and Lick Observatory (Steve Vogt) have inaugurated the first two purpose built precision velocity spectrometers used with iodine cells.  These instruments (PFS at Magellan and APF at Lick) are producing precision of 1 m/s.  Our Lick and Carnegie teams are enthusiastic about the next decade.  Over the past 25 years the iodine absorption cell has become a standard tool for measuring stellar Doppler velocities. Teams from many institutions  such as University of Texas, Penn State, Yale, Harvard; and national and international facilities from Japan, China, Australia, the European Southern Observatory (VLT/UVES), have adopted the iodine technique.

The most exciting discoveries are yet to come.

 

paulbutler

About the author. Paul Butler is a Staff Scientist at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.  Previously he served as a Staff Astronomer at the Anglo Australian Observatory in Sydney Australia and as a Research Fellow at UC Berkeley. Butler’s work has focused on improving the measurement precision of stellar Doppler velocities.  He designed and built the iodine absorption cell system at Lick Observatory which resulted in the discovery of 5 of the first 6 known extrasolar planets.  Thanks to its simplicity of implementation and demonstrated performance, the iodine cell technique has been instrumental in many posterior planet search programs worldwide, such as Keck and the Anglo-Australian Telescope.  Butler’s work has resulted in the discovery of most of the first 200 extrasolar planets, including many of the known multiple planet systems, and many firsts like the first Neptune-mass planet, and the first few-Earth mass objects. This work has been featured in PBS documentaries, front page articles in the New York Times and Washington Post, as well as a TIME magazine cover story. He has received the Bioastronomy Medal from the International Astronomical Union, and the Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.  He has served as a Centennial Lecturer for the American Astronomical Society, and he has been named Space Scientist of the Year by Discover Magazine. Butler received his Ph.D. from the University Maryland under the supervision of Dr. Roger Bell.  He received his BS in chemistry and MS in physics from San Francisco State University.